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Science of Sex Appeal- The Dating and Mating Pool
Extreme variability may also be detrimental , resulting in the production of too high a percentage of misfits. Extreme conservatism , in either sexual or nonsexual reproduction, may be disastrous to the species in the long run. In some species a new mate may be taken each season or, as in sparrows, a general promiscuity may prevail. Share Adjust Comment Print Former Saskatoon nightclub owner Skipp Edward Anderson is out on bail after appealing his sexual assault conviction, handed down by a jury in January. The gonad and its duct is accordingly comparable to other glands in the body; that is, the gland is generally a more or less compact mass of cells of a particular, specialized kind, together with a duct for passage of the product of the tissue to the site of action. In general, the need for physical mating has led to courtship and an emotional bonding between mating pairs throughout much of the animal kingdom at the higher level, particularly among birds and mammals. The microscopic eggs of Hydra and of Daphnia , for example, lie at the bottom of ponds throughout the winter, each within a tough protective case. Protective membranes must be tough indeed. In some, such as most worms, all that is needed are small openings, or precisely placed pores, in the body wall through which sperm or eggs can escape. This situation actually is the crux of the matter for nearly all forms of life, because while it may be possible for a single individual to possess both male and female gonads, producing both sperm and eggs, it remains generally desirable, if not essential, that eggs be fertilized by sperm produced by another individual. The life-span itself is in fact adapted to the period during which active existence is possible in their particular habitat. None of these cells will have exactly the same combination of genes characteristic of the respective parent.
In other organisms, such as bees and wasps, in which females develop from fertilized eggs and males develop from unfertilized eggs, distribution of the sexes is unequal. Yet even among the varius single-celled organisms, mating commonly occurs between individuals of two different kinds. Among aquatic animals, particularly marine animals whose external medium, the ocean, is remarkably similar chemically to the internal body fluid medium of all animals, eggs are also in most cases shed to the exterior, where development of the fertilized eggs can proceed readily. In some species the gametes may be alike and all are motile, progressing through the water by means of one or more whiplike flagella similar to the tail of a sperm. Ferns , for example, shed millions of microscopic, nonsexual spores, which are capable of growing into new plants if they settle in a suitable environment. Sexual reproduction thus introduces a variability, in addition to its propagative function. The seeds of annual plants germinate in the spring, grow and set seed in turn during the summer, and die in the fall. This kind of mating is seen most often among the single-celled organisms known as flagellates. All such reproduction depends on the capacity of cells to grow and divide, which is a basic property of life. More remarkable are those insects and other creatures that produce living light , in some cases for no apparent purpose but in others, such as the firefly , for signalling between the sexes in the dark of summer nights. But this is not the whole story, and it applies universally only to mammals and birds. Accordingly there is the basic sex, which depends on the kind of sex gland present, and sexuality, which depends on the different structures, functions, and activities associated with the sex glands. Accordingly, and especially in multicelled animals of all sorts, male gametes, or spermatozoa, are extremely small, extremely motile, and are produced in enormous numbers. If only sperm cells are produced, the reproductive gland is a testis , and the primary sex of the tissue and the individual possessing it is male. Life cycles adjusted to environmental change Both sexual and nonsexual reproduction may be exploited or adjusted to meet widely fluctuating environmental conditions, especially those of a regular seasonal character. Eggs have become microscopic, devoid of shell, yolk, and virtually all albumen, although they still need to be fertilized as they enter the upper end of the oviduct. In most others, more is needed and a tubular sperm duct or an oviduct leads from each testis or ovary, through which the sex cells pass to the exterior. The adaptive significance of sex When two reproductive cells from somewhat unlike parents come together and fuse, the resulting product of development is never exactly the same as either parent. The limpet on top of the pile changes into a male. Whether they are testes or ovaries or, as in some animals and plants, both together in the same parental individual, they are typically contained within the body, and therefore the sex cells usually need to be passed to the outside in order to function. This process is only suitable, however, when eggs are without tough protective cases or membranes; that is, only when eggs are readily fertilizable for some time after being shed and while drifting in the sea. Hydras bud off new hydras continually, each new hydra repeating the process, with the size of populations limited only by available food. With few other exceptions, in all other creatures the gonads are part of the internal tissues and some means of exit is necessary. In other words, the single set of chromosomes present in the nucleus of any particular sperm or egg, while complete in number and kinds, is a mixture, some chromosomes having come from the set originally contributed by the male parent and some from the female. On the other hand, the female gametes, or ova, individually need to be as large as possible since the larger the size and the more condensed the internal nutritional reserves, the farther along the path of embryonic development the egg can travel before hatching must occur and the new organism must fend for itself. Either of the two divisions, designated female and male, of this classification. The role of the female individual is to deliver or otherwise offer eggs capable of being fertilized under precise circumstances.
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